The mentioning of gene names in the body of the scientific literature 1901-2017 and their fractional counting was used as a proxy to assess the level of biological function discovery. We define a literature score of one as full publication equivalent (FPE), the amount of literature necessary to achieve one publication solely dedicated to a gene. We find that less than 5000 human genes have each at least 100 FPEs in the available literature corpus.
Distant homology relationships among proteins with many transmembrane regions (TMs) are difficult to detect as they are clouded by the TMs’ hydrophobic compositional bias and mutational divergence in connecting loops. In the case of several GPI lipid anchor biosynthesis pathway components, the hidden evolutionary signal can be revealed with dissectHMMER, a sequence similarity search tool focusing on fold-critical, high complexity sequence segments.
With the increasing accumulation of genomic sequence information of prokaryotes, the study of codon usage bias has gained renewed attention. The purpose of this study was to examine codon selection pattern within and across cyanobacterial species belonging to diverse taxonomic orders and habitats. We performed detailed comparative analysis of cyanobacterial genomes with respect to codon bias. Our analysis reflects that in cyanobacterial genomes, A- and/or T-ending codons were used predominantly in the genes whereas G- and/or C-ending codons were largely avoided.
Cell division in bacteria is initiated by FtsZ, which forms a Z ring at the middle of the cell, between the nucleoids. The Z ring is stabilized by Z ring-associated proteins (Zaps), which crosslink the FtsZ filaments and provide strength. The deletion of Zaps leads to the elongation phenotype with an abnormal Z ring. The components of cell division in Helicobacter pylori are similar to other gram negative bacteria except for the absence of few components including Zaps.