The reductionist approach is prevalent in biomedical science. However, increasing evidence now shows that biological systems cannot be simply considered as the sum of its parts. With experimental, technological and computational advances, we can now do more than view parts in isolation, thus wepropose that an increasing holistic view (where a protein is investigated as much as a whole as possible) is now timely. To further advocate this, we review and discuss several studies and applications involving allostery,where distant protein regions can cross-talk to influence functionality.
Therapeutic antibodies have shifted the paradigm of disease treatments from small molecules to biologics, especially in cancer therapy. Despite the increasing number of antibody candidates, much remains unknown about the antibody and how its various regions interact. Recent findings showed that the antibody constant region can govern localization effects that are useful in reducing side effects due to systemic circulation by the commonly used IgG isotypes. Given their localized mucosal effects, IgA antibodies are increasingly promising therapeutic biologics.
HIV polyprotein Gag is increasingly found to contribute to protease inhibitor resistance. Despite its role in viral maturation and in developing drug resistance, there remain gaps in the knowledge of the role of certain Gag subunits (e.g. p6), and that of non-cleavage mutations in drug resistance. As p6 is flexible, it poses a problem for structural experiments, and is hence often omitted in experimental Gag structural studies.
Antibody research has traditionally focused on heavy chains, often neglecting the important complementary role of light chains in antibody formation and secretion. In the light chain, the complementarity-determining region 3 (VL-CDR3) is specifically implicated in disease states. By modulating VL-CDR3 exposure on the scaffold through deletions in the framework region 3 (VL-FWR3), we further investigated the effects on secretion in recombinant production and antigen binding kinetics.
The IgA receptor, Fcar (CD89) consists of five sequence segments: two segments (S1, S2) forming the potential signal peptide, two extracellular EC domains that include the IgA binding site, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TM/C) region. Numerous Fcar splice variants have been reported with various combinations of the sequence segments mentioned above. Here, we report a novel splice variant termed variant APD isolated from a healthy volunteer that lacks only the IgA-binding EC1 domain.
Background: Strategies to control HIV for improving the quality of patient lives have been aided by the Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), which consists of a cocktail of inhibitors targeting key viral enzymes. Numerous new drugs have been developed over the past few decades but viral resistances to these drugs in the targeted viral enzymes are increasingly reported. Nonetheless the acquired mutations often reduce viral fitness and infectivity.
Mobile apps have invaded almost every aspect of life, yet few are relevant for biomedical experimental research. The entry of the few mobile apps targeted at experimental processes promise to revolutionize biomedical research, greatly
increasing the convenience of analyzing experiments and potentially displacing certain lab equipment with the smartphone.
In anticipation of this progress towards a mobile experimental lab, we surveyed the two popular mobile app stores — Google